|Japanese name:||宮野 志保 |
|English name:||Shelly Miyano|
|Age:||18, 6 or 7 (as Ai Haibara)|
|Date of birth:||Unknown|
|Relatives:||Akemi Miyano (older sister, deceased) |
Elena Miyano (mother, deceased)
Atsushi Miyano (father, deceased)
|Status:||Alive (Under disguise as Ai Haibara) |
Dead (for the Black Organization)
|Aliases:||Ai Haibara (alias) |
Sherry (code name)
|First appearance:||Manga: File 16 (In a silhouette) / File 241 (first full appearance) |
Anime:(first appeared in episode: 128-129 )-Episode 177
|Japanese voice:||Megumi Hayashibara|
|English voice:||Erica Mendez|
|Drama actor:||Yu Kashii (Sherry)|
Shiho Miyano (宮野 志保 Miyano Shiho) is a former Black Organization researcher, codenamed "Sherry" (シェリー Sherī), who was working on APTX 4869. After the Black Organization killed her sister, she took APTX 4869 to commit suicide but shrank instead. She fled the Black Organization and now currently goes under the alias of Ai Haibara (灰原 哀 Haibara Ai).
- 1 Background
- 2 Personality
- 3 Appearance
- 4 Abilities and skills
- 5 Appellations
- 6 Plot overview
- 6.1 Prior to escape
- 6.2 Escape from the Black Organization
- 6.3 As Ai Haibara
- 6.4 Reunion with the Black Organization (Manga: 238-242, Anime: 176-178)
- 6.5 Temporary antidote in Gunma (Manga: 815-817, Anime: 699-700)
- 6.6 Impersonation by Kaitou Kid and faked death (Manga: 818-824, Anime: 701-704)
- 7 Relationships analysis
- 8 Name origin
- 9 Different looks
- 10 Quotes
- 11 Trivia
- 12 In other languages
- 13 See also
- 14 Gallery
- 15 References
Shiho Miyano and her older sister, Akemi Miyano, were born into the secret crime syndicate known unofficially as the Black Organization. Shiho's English mother, Elena Miyano, and Japanese father, Atsushi Miyano, were both important researchers for the Black Organization. They both died in what other members of the Black Organization described as an accident while Shiho was very young.
While Akemi lived a normal life, Shiho was sent to America as a small child to go to school and was groomed to finish her parents' research on APTX 4869. Most of her time in America was lonely; she ate lunch alone, and was otherwise isolated from her peers for being different. Despite the difficult social situation, Shiho was an academic prodigy, and by the age of thirteen she was working as a highly ranked scientist for the Black Organization. Her codename in the Black Organization is "Sherry", after the alcoholic drink. Her only real friend was Akemi, who only involved herself in the organization to get Shiho out.
At some point, along with Gin and Vodka, she has visited the Mermaid Island, where there supposedly lived a woman rumored to be immortal. She has always know that Renya Karasuma is the Black Organization head.
Shiho was about 18 years old when she developed the most current incarnation of the experimental test compound APTX 4869. Although it was not her intended purpose, she discovered that it could be used as a poison to kill without leaving any traces of itself in a body. While researching its effects, Shiho noticed that one of her Beika lab mice had become younger after being given the drug instead of dying. Meanwhile, the Black Organization started using APTX 4869 to commit untraceable murders.
After the death of her sister at the hands of Gin, she rebelled against the Black Organization, refusing to complete any work for them until she received a satisfactory explanation for why her sister was killed. Instead she was confined to a small room to await the boss decided her execution. She took an APTX 4869 pill she had pocketed earlier to commit suicide, but shrank instead to elementary school child age. That allowed her to slip her handcuffs and escape via a rubbish chute. Her only hope was her suspicions about the potential survival of Shinichi Kudo, the only unconfirmed death of the human trial subjects. She fled towards Shinichi's house, but collapsed in the rain outside the house of Shinichi's neighbor, Professor Agasa. Agasa found and adopted her, and she now lives with him under the alias Ai Haibara.
Naturally, the boss ordered the organization to hunt her down and murder her, and to get rid of anyone associated with her.
Initially, Shiho was very cynical, which was reflected in her valuing her own security above idealistic principles of justice. She also did not wish to become close to others. While attending school in America, she ate lunch alone. It was only by repeatedly approaching her that the Detective Boys and Ran finally became her friends. Shiho was also untrusting of others in general, and preferred to put on an expressionless, cold mask while bottling up her pain and sadness. Shiho's views about death have been complex and at times contradictory. She was prepared to likely kill Ki'ichiro Numabuchi with APTX 4869 as part of her tests, but on the other hand, she detested the Black Organization's use of APTX as a killing tool and Conan labeling her as a murderer. Her fascination with her work seems to be stronger than fear for the organization, while she was still a member, since she risked changing Shinichi Kudo's data to avoid him getting killed before she could study him.
Shiho speaks very formally.
Changes as Ai Haibara
Her time as Ai Haibara has softened her personality, making her more optimistic and open to Conan's idealistic pursuit of justice.
Shiho is a thin woman of average height with naturally wavy auburn hair at mid neck length. Although she is multiracial, she is Japanese looking. Many characters refer to her as very beautiful, a trait she seems to have inherited from her mother.
Abilities and skills
Shiho is a biochemical genius, taking up her parents' research work on APTX 4869 for the Black Organization by the age of thirteen after going to school in America.
Shiho has demonstrated knowledge of medicine, recognizing the symptoms of Shiratori's subdural hematoma. Using knowledge of osteology, she also is able to deduce a long decayed woman's ambulatory condition.
Shiho was able to deduce Conan as Shinichi by inspecting the clues left in Kudo residence. As Haibara, she shows sharp observation, keen thinking process and ability to make logical deduction; however, unlike Conan/Shinichi, she often lacks specialized knowledge or experience to make the conclusive argument to solve the case. Moreover, to avoid attention, she stays quiet, which Conan often takes the spotlight. Haibara does not identify herself as a "mystery freak" as Conan. In the few cases that Haibara leads the investigation, she shows that she can be a great detective on her own, although this is not her prime speciality. Haibara has also known to read some mysteries like Agatha Christie's Hercule Poirot novels and PD James's Cordelia Gray novel but it is not known whether she enjoys the genre.
"Black Organization sense"
Shiho has the ability to sense when Black Organization members are around, which she characterizes as their unique "smell" or "pressure". So far, her sense only detects Black Organization members and not people with malevolent intent generally, however, it doesn't always trigger when Black Organization members are present. nor does it reveal their numbers. Sometimes the sense is fleeting (Subaru, or Shuichi passing by pursuing James Black), or context sensitive (when Akemi was planning the bank robbery).
Like other Black Organization members, Shiho has also demonstrated a strong tolerance for pain. During the initial apoptoxin transformation, Shiho does not scream despite the sensation of 'bones melting', as doing so would likely have ended in being caught and killed when someone came to check on her. It is unclear if she even passes out at all, and regardless she manages to recover quickly enough to escape through a chute/ventilation shaft before her captors know anything happened.
Additionally, she climbs barefoot up a chimney while extremely sick from the effects of a cold combined with Baijiu-induced regrowth. She then crawls back to the chimney after she is shot multiple times by Gin on the frigid, snowy roof. She still maintains consciousness after falling down the chimney over a story in height and experiencing the agony of reverting back to Ai Haibara. Nowhere during this ordeal or her rescue afterwards did she cry from the pain. Shiho also handled the painful side affects of being reverting back to an adult with a prototype antidote better than Shinichi.
Shiho is familiar with firearms. As Haibara, she was confident enough to intentionally miss a shot with a handgun.
In Lupin III vs Detective Conan The Movie, Haibara is able to ride a Harley motorbike, she stated that she used to own a Harley when she was Shiho.
In The Disappearance of Edogawa Conan, she is shown driving a car as Haibara.
Prior to escape
After being orphaned by the death of her parents at a young age, Shiho was groomed to take over their APTX 4869 research project. She was educated overseas in America before returning to Japan at or before she was 13. She became a high ranking member, codenamed Sherry, in the Black Organization's internal drug development division. When she was about 13, undercover FBI agent Shuichi Akai began dating Shiho's sister Akemi Miyano in order to use Shiho's rank to his advantage while infiltrating the Black Organization.
During the 5+ years Shiho worked in the Black Organization lab, Akemi was Shiho's lifeline to normalcy and her primary emotional support within the darkness of the Black Organization. Akemi would arrange meetings with Shiho in restaurants and such to chat about current happenings, and Shiho would sometimes tell Akemi about her Black Organization activities, although it appears she did not go into much detail. Akemi would also send Shiho floppies of pictures of her travels and friends which Shiho would quickly look at. During this time, Shiho accidentally mixed up the disks and mailed a disk of extremely sensitive information back to Akemi by mistake. The disk eventually would up in the hands of Akemi's professor friend, Masami Hirota.
Closer to the beginning of the current timeline, Shiho Miyano was ordered to test the most recent, yet still incomplete, version of APTX 4869 on Ki'ichiro Numabuchi, a failed assassin. Shiho received the data about him, but he managed to escape the Black Organization before she could test it on him. Shiho fled the Black Organization herself soon after, so her superiors never found a substitute test subject. Shinichi Kudo wound up being the first "guinea pig" of APTX 4869 according to Gin, who decided to use the newly approved poison to kill him after Shinichi witnessed a Black Organization transaction.
Unaware of the APTX 4869's rare deaging side effect when they used it on Shinichi Kudo, the Black Organization ordered a search for him because his body had not been found. As the creator of the drug, Shiho was part of the team who searched Shinichi's house twice to confirm his death. She began to suspect Shinichi's transformation when she noticed his clothes from primary school had disappeared between the first and second searches. Sometime earlier, one mouse dosed with APTX 4869 had become younger, so she suspected something similar had happened to Shinichi. Shiho did not want the Black Organization to kill such an interesting "test subject" before she could examine him, so Shiho confirmed Shinichi as deceased so the organization would not look into the matter further. Shiho later met with Akemi and told her that she went to Kudo's house in Beika city to "look after something".
Akemi's robbery plan and death
Meanwhile, Akemi Miyano wished that she and Shiho could leave the Black Organization. The Black Organization itself was in an awkward position as Akemi had been in love with the FBI spy, Shuichi Akai, whose true allegiance had since been uncovered when Shiho was about 16. The Black Organization could not simply kill Akemi because that would jeopardize the loyalty of Shiho, who was valuable to the Black Organization's research efforts. Exasperated, the Black Organization came up with a trap for Akemi; they told her that she could leave the Black Organization with Shiho if she would rob 10 billion yen from a bank for them. The Black Organization expected Akemi to fail, which would give them the excuse to eliminate her while keeping Shiho loyal; however Akemi, with a team of robbers, succeeded in obtaining the money.
In the event of her success, the Black Organization had designed the second part of the robbery plan so that Akemi's assistants would kill each other or be unintentionally killed by the unwitting Akemi. However one accomplice had fled, forcing Akemi to use detective Kogoro Mouri to find him. After her first meeting with Kogoro, Akemi met with Shiho again. Akemi had not told Shiho about the robbery plan, but it seems that Shiho's detection of the Black Organization aura from Akemi and gossip had made Shiho aware that Akemi had done something dangerous. Without telling Shiho about the robbery, Akemi redirected the conversation to Conan Edogawa, whom Akemi said was brilliant and had the composure of an adult. This conversation likely helped Shiho deduce Conan's identity as the missing Shinichi.
Later, after all the accomplices were killed, Akemi planned to hand access to the money over to Gin and Vodka at the shipyard. Instead, Gin murdered Akemi. A newspaper took a photo of the crime scene that included Conan looking downcast. Shiho later identified Conan using it.
Shiho already resented the Black Organization for using the incomplete APTX 4869 for killing purposes, but the news of Akemi's death was the final straw that induced Shiho to boycott her research until she received an official explanation for why her sister was killed. She was aware that Akemi pulled out a robbery, but Shiho might have suspended that there was more to the story. The Black Organization refused, and faced with the possibility that Shiho could defect or do something else drastic in revenge, decided to cut their loses by executing Shiho.
Escape from the Black Organization
Awaiting the boss decided her execution, Shiho was handcuffed to a wall in a sealed room that also featured a garbage chute too small for an adult to fit in. With no other way out, she took a pill of APTX 4869 she had pocketed to commit suicide before she could be killed, but instead she shrank into a six- or seven-year-old girl. In her new, smaller body, she slipped her hand free of the cuff and used the garbage chute to escape the sealed room. She then attempted to reach Shinichi Kudo's house, hoping he might be able to help her. Exhausted, she collapsed in front of Kudo's house, where she was found by Professor Agasa, who eventually adopted her. After this, Shiho Miyano took up the role of Ai Haibara. It turned out later that Agasa was a professional acquaintance of her parents and had spoken some with her father, Atsushi Miyano, even though Agasa didn't know at that time the Miyanos had children.
As Ai Haibara
Reunion with the Black Organization (Manga: 238-242, Anime: 176-178)
In Reunion with the Black Organization, Conan and Haibara find Gin's Porsche by chance. Conan plants a tracker and transmitter in the parked car and eavesdrops on Gin and Vodka when they return. Gin calls an agent named Pisco and discusses part of a plan to kill someone at a mourning party that will take place at the Haido City Hotel. Gin tells Pisco he can use the "experimental detective" if needed. Gin then finds the tracker and destroys it, believing Sherry placed it there because he also found a single red hair that Haibara inadvertently lost while Conan was planting the bugs. Gin then warns Pisco about Sherry. Although initially reluctant, after hearing Pisco has APTX, Haibara decides to go to the party to try to obtain a sample. Pisco, who knew Shiho as a child, recognizes her as Haibara, kidnaps her using chloroform, and confines her in a wine storage room in another part of the hotel. He doesn't get the opportunity to tell anyone about his discovery because the police are rounding up suspects for the mourning party murder and he is one of them.
After Haibara wakes up, Conan tells Haibara to drink some baijiu in order to escape. While waiting for the change to occur, she copies some APTX data from a computer Pisco left behind onto a floppy disk. Haibara turns back into Shiho and changes into some leftover janitor clothes that Pisco left behind in the room as part of his disguise. Gin and Vodka break into the storage room looking for Pisco, but Shiho manages to hide herself just before they arrive by bracing her body in the chimney. Unfortunately, Gin hears her breathing and finds another one of her hairs. Instead of simply shooting her in the chimney, however, he goes to the roof to wait for her to finish climbing.
After she climbs out of the chimney, Shiho is confronted by Gin, who shoots her from behind. After exchanging some banter, Gin demands to know how Shiho escaped from the locked chamber room. Shiho remains silent, so Gin shoots her several more times non-fatally, hoping she will crack. Eventually, Gin and Vodka realize she won't talk, so Gin prepares to kill her. Conan meanwhile has arrived and darts Gin in the back with his tranquilizer watch. Using the voice changer to disguise his voice, Conan orders her to get back to the chimney. Vodka shoots Shiho just as she reaches the chimney, so Shiho falls down awkwardly.
In the fireplace, Shiho reverts back into Ai Haibara while Pisco watches. He congratulates her for having made so much progress on the APTX, whose effects he has just witnessed. He tells Shiho he was a close friend of the Miyanos while they were still alive, and they told him much about the drug they were developing. He knew her from when she was a baby, even though Shiho does not remember him. Pisco prepares to shoot her, but Conan stops him by distracting him at the last minute. Conan manages to trick Pisco into setting himself and the room on fire, and carries Haibara out of the room on his back before Pisco can find them again. Gin comes down the chimney and confronts Pisco. Before Pisco is able to tell Gin the truth about Shiho and APTX 4869, Gin kills Pisco for accidentally getting his picture taken in the act of murder during the mourning party.
Conan sneaks Haibara to Agasa's beetle and gives her his jacket. Haibara then lies to Conan about losing the disk of APTX data she copied. Worried that the organization knows that she has shrunk, Haibara tells Conan she must leave the city. Agasa tells Haibara that her identity is safe because he eavesdropped on the conversation when Gin killed Pisco by using the tracking glasses Shiho dropped when she fell down the chimney.
Temporary antidote in Gunma (Manga: 815-817, Anime: 699-700)
On a camping trip in Gunma, the Detective Boys run across a murderer burying a body and are chased to a cabin in the woods where the killer and the victim had been staying. The murderer bars the door and sets the cabin alight with the children inside. The strength of the children is not enough to open the door and Ayumi passes out from the smoke. With Conan nowhere nearby, Haibara takes a temporary antidote, borrows the victim's clothing, and uses the murder weapon - an axe - to break down the door. Mitsuhiko, not realizing who she is, films her carrying Ayumi from the burning cabin and mails the video to Kogoro hoping he would find their savior. Bourbon logs into Kogoro's computer and sees the video, precipitating the events on the Bell Tree Express.
Impersonation by Kaitou Kid and faked death (Manga: 818-824, Anime: 701-704)
To counter Bourbon and Vermouth's plan to capture or kill Shiho aboard the Bell Tree Express, Conan, with Subaru Okiya and Yukiko Kudo's help, devised a plan to keep Haibara hidden and force the ignorant Kaitou Kid, only present to scout ahead for a future heist, to disguise as Shiho and confront Bourbon. Bourbon wound up confronting "Shiho" and fell for the thief's disguise because Haibara told Kaitou Kid what to say. In the confusion that followed, Subaru Okiya separated the rearmost carriage from the train, which then blew up because Vermouth had planted explosives there intending to kill Shiho to prevent Bourbon from capturing her alive. Kaitou Kid escaped in the nick of time, but the rest of the Black Organization, sans Vermouth, now believe Shiho Miyano is dead.
Family and friends
After the death of Shiho's parents, Akemi became Shiho's only true ally within the darkness of the Black Organization. Through direct conversation and mail, Akemi showed Shiho the normal side of life that Shiho was unable to experience. Akemi would often admonish Shiho gently to do things normal for her age, such as encouraging her to get a boyfriend. Akemi's death had enough emotional impact to convince Shiho to betray the Black Organization by boycotting her research, even though she knew the act of defiance would likely result in her own death. Indicating that her sister was more important to Shiho than her research. Shiho greatly misses Akemi. In the non-canon Movie 5, Shiho's desire to hear Akemi's voice again, even if only a message on a phone answering machine, was used by Gin and Vodka to nearly pinpoint Shiho's location.
Elena died when Shiho was young, so Shiho doesn't remember much of her. Elena left tapes for Shiho for each of her birthdays. Some of the messages are serious and mysterious, but others are more lighthearted and reveal things about Elena's past. It is clear from the tapes Elena loved Shiho very much, and Shiho misses her mother in turn and takes comfort in hearing her voice.
Shiho's feelings toward her late father is unknown, but she does show interest in seeing the house where he grew up.
Shiho's face looked similar to Mary Sera. Ayumi once said that Ai was similar to Masumi. However, Shiho doesn't know that she and Masumi are cousins.
It seems like Haibara was "triggered" by Rumi in the Burning Tent Murder Case when "prosthetic eye" was mentioned. Haibara then questioned whether Rumi got problems with her right eye's vision. But after the case was solved, she told Conan that she liked Rumi and that Conan shouldn't speak ill of her. Their relationship has been peaceful ever since.
The Black Organization
Gin has an abnormal attachment for Shiho Miyano and seems to enjoy hunting for her, while she seems to fear and hate him. They appear to know each other well despite being in different parts of the Organization. Gin can identify Shiho from a single auburn hair. When Shiho escaped from the Black Organization, Gin began searching for her, ordering Vodka to bring her back dead or alive. Gin and Shiho had a direct confrontation later in the Haido City Hotel. Since then, Shiho has managed to avoid any more direct contact with Gin.
The theory that the two may have had a relationship in the past has been mentioned in at least one official guidebook for the manga and has some traction in the fandom. Gosho Aoyama has deferred questions related to the issue in past interviews, asking for fans to be patient.
Shiho and Vodka have met and are acquaintances.
Vermouth and Shiho have some connection, although it has not been elaborated on. Shiho fears Vermouth more than other Black Organization members except perhaps Gin. Shiho was Vermouth's target, but Vermouth gave up on her after Conan's intervention. Vermouth appears to dislike the research the Miyanos engaged in, calling it foolish. Vermouth resents the Miyanos in general, but it is unclear if she hates Shiho specifically. That said, Vermouth considers Shiho to be someone who absolutely must die. If Shiho was in a relationship with Gin, then Vermouth and Shiho were love rivals as Vermouth was in a romantic relationship with Gin.
Shuichi Akai and Shiho are likely to have known each other via Akemi Miyano, whom Akai was dating. Shiho knew Akai under his alias "Dai Moroboshi", and she likely knows he was a spy and an FBI agent, but she referes to him in her mind as 'the one, who betrayed the organization', so it's unclear what she has heard of his break with the organization. In chapter 824, Bourbon mentions that Dai Moroboshi worked for the FBI in front of Kaitou Kid, disguised as Sherry, who was listening through a microphone. Nonetheless, as Haibara, she is still afraid of and senses the "Black Organization aura" from Akai. Akai recognizes Haibara as Shiho, saying he is not willing to face her yet, likely over guilt related to the incidents culminating in Akemi's death.
"Shiho" (志保) means "will and sail", her surname is "Miyano" (宮野) means "shrine field". Sherry is Detective Shunsaku Kudo's (from Tantei Monogatari (Detective Tales)) favorite liquor.
Quotes about Shiho
|“||She's one of the top brains in our organization...||„|
— File 16, Page 13: "A Devil-like Woman", Gin said to Akemi before killing her
- Shiho Miyano has had two appearances as an adult in the manga. All the rest of the times she has been shown in flashbacks. She took her own temporary antidote in file 816.
In other languages
Click here to see what the names "Shiho Miyano" and "Sherry" become in the manga/anime of other languages.
- ^ Super Digest Book 10+, page 202, question 42
- ^ Conan Drill Page 51. Also, in episode 343, Haibara is listening to recorded messages that her mother made every year, and these seem to stop after her 18th birthday.
- ^ a b Conan Drill Page 49
- ^ File 384-386 Volume 38 File 2-4
- ^ Boy Genta's Misfortune
- ^ Akai started infiltrating the Black Organization five years ago. He did so by becoming Akemi's girlfriend in order to get close to Shiho and use her influence to get in. (Manga Volume 58, File 2, pg 9: "Akai's Past") According to the FBI's description, Shiho was "a scientist for them" at the time. Furthermore, this took place in Japan since everyone was speaking Japanese, Akemi lived in Japan, and the FBI bust two years prior to the current timeline was in Japan (607 pg 8). If Shiho is 18 in the present, then she would have been 13 at the time that Akai started infiltrating the Black Organization, and she was already a scientist for them at this point and high ranked.
- ^ Manga Volume 18, File 9, page 9
- ^ Volume 30, File 303: "Genta's Misfortune"
- ^ Tokyo hostage/Matsuda case
- ^ Castle treasure case
- ^ She has only claimed the sense for Black Organization members, and she does not seem to have the same magnitude reaction around people who aren't, such as case culprits, although she may be generally suspicious of them;
- ^ This is the case especially when the Black Organization members aren't focusing or in an aggressive mood. Numabuchi is an example of this.
- ^ The case with Vermouth and Shuichi on the bus, and when she was unsure if Pisco had an accomplice (Vermouth) at the party.
- ^ Episode 700: The Shadow Approaching Haibara's Secret
- ^ a b c d 817 pg 12
- ^ 823 pg 15
- ^ Conan Drill page 237
- ^ Five years before present timeline
- ^ a b c Volume 18, File 10, Page 15
- ^ Two years before present timeline
- ^ Mitsuhiko's Mystifying Forest case (some translations do not have this line correct)
- ^ This is based on the manga version of this case. The anime alters this scene
- ^ Manga Chapter 179:anime ep: 129 The Girl Made Of Lies
- ^ Manga Chapter 398: The Torn Friendship, Part 1
- ^ Manga Chapter 423: A Mystery Left by a Visitor
- ^ The bloody disk is on the bottom of the stack shown in Volume 25 File 9 (Chapter 251), Page 8 and Episode 188.
- ^ a b c Conan drill page 239
- ^ 青山剛昌先生と話そうDAY (Let's talk with Aoyama Gosho-sensei day), held January 3, 2013  Q: A girl asked about the "Sherry naked" thing, that why does Gin always think about her without clothes, what exactly is their relationship? A: Gosho answered that they indeed had a relationship, but it wouldn't be interesting if (he) revealed it there, so please wait for it. The poster also mentioned that Gosho had a trolling (or something like that) laugh/smile at the time.
- ^ Conan Drill page 239, "恋のライバル…?" (Love rivals?)
- ^ Manga Chapter 824 ()
|Developers||Atsushi Miyano • Elena Miyano • Shiho Miyano|
|Victims||Shinichi Kudo • Kohji Haneda • Amanda Hughes • Mary Sera • Shiho Miyano|
|Antidotes||Prototype antidote • Baijiu|
|Related Articles||Silver Bullet • Victim list • Case from 17 years ago • Black Organization|